Sunday, February 16, 2020
Cognitive Bias - Essay Example Ability to recognize cognitive bias is of utmost importance in order to conduct any qualitative behavioural research. Cognitive bias can reduce or even spoil the findings of a research having a solid research design structure. While conducting cognitive bias it is important for the researchers to be aware of cognitive bias on both sides. The real course of concern is that the quantification of emotion using cognitive interpretation is likely to be flawed. Contemporary measurement methods like focus group, questionnaire surveys are used to ask questions to the respondents. But when a respondent is asked a written or verbal question, the chances of being exposed to cognitive bias is very high. Groupthink also known as herd behaviour or bandwagon effect occurs when the group members reduce the personal beliefs to maintain cohesiveness among the group. In a group a certain individual may feel out of the comfort zone if the personal point of views does not match that of the others. Theref ore the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s member may go with the accord of the others. Another kind of cognitive bias is termed as the availability bias. When the participants are asked certain questions, the respondents are most likely recalling the recent experiences of such instances that come to mind very quickly.
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Book review on the jungle - Essay Example Moreover, one must have The Jungle in mind when listening to the conservative arguments for a better America. In their view, if businesses would be deregulated and if Ã¢â¬Å"superfluousÃ¢â¬ agencies, such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the Environmental Protection Agency, or perhaps the Food and Drug Administration, could be defunded or eliminated, businesses would go gangbusters. They are also against unions. In other words, in the Conservative view, the United States should return to a time that is similar to the era surrounding The Jungle. However, as The Jungle shows, if there are no constraints on businesses and the only motive is profit, then workers and society in general, are the losers. There is no better argument for Ã¢â¬Å"excessiveÃ¢â¬ regulations and labor unions than this book. Summary The novel The Jungle centers around the trials and tribulations of a Lithuanian immigrant named Jurgis Rudkus. Jurgis comes to America in the hope of having a better life and more opportunity than what he had in his home country. Instead, he finds an America where corruption runs rampant and there are few regulations on unscrupulous individuals and companies. Therefore there is little incentive to behave judiciously. For instance, Jurgis is taken advantage of by his boss in his meatpacking job and the conditions at the meatpacking factory are extremely poor. There was little inspection of what was going on in the slaughterhouses therefore there was a great chance that the meat would be contaminated by microbes. Moreover, the animals were treated extremely poorly. The book also describes a predatory lending scheme to which Jurgis and his bride, Ona, succumb, which drains their savings and leads to their eviction. JurgisÃ¢â¬â¢ job alone is not enough to support the family, so Ona also has to take a job. However, Ona gets raped by her boss and, when Jurgis goes to defend her honor by attacking her boss, Phil Connor, Jurgis is imprisoned . There are other mishaps that befall Jurgis as well. Ona dies in childbirth, partially because of an incompetent midwife, Madame Haupt and JurgisÃ¢â¬â¢ first child drowns in the muddy street. After this, Jurgis despairs and tries the life of an itinerant. However, he finds that he can only find temporary farm work, as he is turned out after the harvest. Eventually, Jurgis finds solace in socialism, as he gets involved in the socialist movement and a fellow socialist employs him. The book ends with JurgisÃ¢â¬â¢ attendance at a socialist rally. Context SinclairÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose for writing this book was to essentially wake up the American people to working conditions for the poor and expose corruption of those in power. It was an attempted contrast to the ideal of America, which is that America is the land of the free, home of the brave and stands up for liberty and justice, with the reality of America at that time. This reality was that America was a land of oppression and injus tice and the capitalists got rich on the backs of the workers. This was a time before the Food and Drug Administration, before there were regulations, before the Occupational Safety and Health Administration was formed. In this way, the novel is definitely a polemic, as it attacks the establishment directly, as well as the hierarchy of power in the country, by showing the microcosm of slaughterhouses in Chicago and the overall life of one immigrant. The novel is put into
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Testing Drug Content of Famotidine Core Tablets 6. Formulation development and evaluation 6.1 Preparation of core tablets Core tablets of famotidine were prepared by direct compression and batch size was kept as 100 tablets. Drug , sodium chloride, polymer and MCC were co-sifted through sieve # 30 Now the blend is mixed in polybag for 10 min Citric acid was crushed using mortar and pestle and sifted through sieve # 60 And this is added to above blend and mixed in a polybag for 10 min. Then magnesium stearate talc were passed through sieve #60 and to the above blend and mixing continued for another 2 min Now the blend is compressed to tablets having the average weight of 180 mg using 8 mm round concave punch and at low relative humidity 20 % RH 6.2 Coating of core tablets: 6.2.1. Preparation of coating solution: 5 ml of water was taken in a beaker and to this required amount of PEG 400 was added and dissolved 95 ml of acetone was taken in a beaker and stirred at 150 rpm using electrical stirrer to this above solution was added and stirred for 5 min Now to the above solution 5 gm of cellulose acetate was added slowly and stirring is continued for another 30 min i.e until a clear solution was formed. 6.2.2. Procedure for coating of semi permeable membrane: Coating was done using RD Lab Coater. Core tablets were placed in the coating pan and coated with cellulose acetate solution coating parameters are maintained as below: Inlet temperature : 40 oC Ã ± 2 oC Bed temperature: 35 oC rpm of pan: 15 -17 Spray rate: 3-7 ml/min Atomizing air pressure: 2.0 psi Coating was done until required weight gain was achieved Drilling of orifice: The orifice was made using needles of different sizes i.e, 24, 22 guage INGREDIENTS F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 Core tablet mg/tablet Famotidine 40 40 40 40 40 40 Citric acid 20 20 20 20 20 20 Sodium chloride 50 50 50 50 50 50 HPMC k100M 9 18 Polyox1105 7.2 Polyox 301 7.2 Polyox303 7.2 Sodium lauryl sulphate 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 Magnesium stearate 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 Talc 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 Avicel PH 102 43 43 53.8 53.8 53.8 53.8 Total wt of tablet 180 180 180 180 180 180 Coating solution Cellulose acetate 5 gm 15 % w/w of total solids (0.669 ml) 4 ml Upto 100 ml 4% PEG 400 Water Acetone Weight gain Coated tablets were left over night for drying Table 6.8 Formulation trails for optimum polymer (using various grades of HPMC and PEO) Table6.9 Formulation trails for optimum polymer concentration and coating weight gain INGREDIENTS F7 F8 F9 Core tablet mg/tablet Famotidine 40 40 40 Citric acid 20 20 20 Sodium chloride 50 50 50 Polyox 301 10.8 10.8 10.8 Avicel PH 102 50.8 50.8 50.8 Sodium lauryl sulphate 3.6 3.6 3.6 Magnesium stearate 1.8 1.8 1.8 Talc 3.6 3.6 3.6 Total wt of tablet 180 180 180 Coating solution Cellulose acetate 5 gm PEG 400 15 % w/w of total solids (0.669 ml) Water 4 ml Acetone Upto 100 ml Weight gain 4 % 3 % 5 % Table 6.10 Formulation trails of optimum plasticizer concentration INGREDIENTS F 10 F 11 F 12 Core tablet mg/tablet Famotidine 40 40 40 Citric acid 20 20 20 Sodium chloride 50 50 50 Polyox 301 10.8 10.8 10.8 Avicel pH 102 50.8 50.8 50.8 Sodium lauryl sulphate 3.6 3.6 3.6 Magnesium stearate 1.8 1.8 1.8 Talc 3.6 3.6 3.6 Total wt of tablet 180 180 180 Coating solution Cellulose acetate 5 gm 5 gm 5 gm PEG 400 (% w/w of total solids) 20% (0.89 ml) 25% (1.25 ml) 35% (1.4 ml) Water 4 ml 4 ml 4 ml Acetone Upto 100 ml Upto 100 ml Upto 100 ml Weight gain 4% 4% 4% 6.3 Evaluation of blend 6.3.1 Angle of repose Angle of repose: Weighed quantity of the drug was passed through a funnel kept at a height 2 cm from the base. The powder is passed till it forms a heap and touches the tip of the funnel. The radius the base of the conical pile, and the height of pile were measured and the angle of repose was calculated using the formula: (h/r) h = height of the pile r = radius of the base of the conical pile Table 6.4 Flow property and corresponding angle of repose Flow property Angle of repose (Ãâ Ã ¸) Excellent 25 Ã¢â¬â 30 Good 31 Ã¢â¬â 35 Fair-no need of aid 36 Ã¢â¬â 40 Passable Ã¢â¬âhang up chances 41 Ã¢â¬â 45 Poor Ã¢â¬â must vibrate, agitate 46 Ã¢â¬â 55 Very poor 56 Ã¢â¬â 65 Very, very poor >66 Formulation code Angle of repose F1 25.45 F2 22.92 F3 23.13 F4 19.20 F5 18.62 F6 17.20 F7 20.09 Table no. : Data for angle of repose of all formulations 6.3.2 Bulk density An accurately weighed quantity of powder carefully poured into graduated cylinder. Then after pouring the powder into the graduated cylinder the powder bed was made uniform without disturbing. Then the volume was measured directly from the graduation marks on the cylinder as ml. The volume measure was called as the bulk volume and the bulk density is calculated by following formula: Bulk density = Weight of powder / Bulk volume Tapped Density: After measuring the bulk volume the same measuring cylinder was set into tap density apparatus. The tap density apparatus was set to 300 taps drop per minute and operated for 500 taps. Volume was noted as (Va) and again tapped for 750 times and volume was noted as (Vb). If the difference between Va and Vb not greater than 2% then Vb is consider as final tapped volume. The tapped density is calculated by the following formula: Tapped density = Weight of powder / Tapped volume Compressibility Index: It gives the flow property of the granules. More is the compressibility; less will be the flow property. It was calculated by the following formula using previously obtained bulk and tapped densities. Carrs index = Tapped density Bulk density X 100 Tapped Density Hausner Ratio: It is used for flow property of the granules. It was also calculated from bulk and tapped densities using following formula: Hausners ratio = Tapped density / Bulk density Table 6.3 Flow property and corresponding Carrs index Hausner ratio Flow property C.I ( % ) Hausner ratio Excellent Ã¢â° ¤10 1.00 Ã¢â¬â 1.11 Good 11 Ã¢â¬â 15 1.12 Ã¢â¬â 1.18 Fair 16 Ã¢â¬â 20 1.19 Ã¢â¬â 1.25 Passable 21 Ã¢â¬â 25 1.26 Ã¢â¬â 1.34 Poor 26 Ã¢â¬â 31 1.35 Ã¢â¬â 1.45 Very poor 32 Ã¢â¬â 37 1.46 Ã¢â¬â 1.59 Very, very poor >38 >1.60 Formulation code Bulk density (gm/cm3) Tapped density (gm/cm3) CarrÃ¢â¬â¢s index (%) Haussners ratio Angle of repose F1 0.486 0.631 22.9 1.25 25.45 F2 0.410 0.513 20.08 1.25 22.92 F3 0.438 0.601 18.259 1.18 23.13 F4 0.436 0.583 16.39 1.196 19.20 F5 0.430 0.520 17.31 1.21 18.62 F6 0.462 0.535 13.64 1.16 17.20 F7 0.446 0.523 14.72 1.17 20.09 Table no. : Data for Bulk density, Tapped density, Compressibility index and HausnerÃ¢â¬â¢s ratio of all formulations 6.4 Post compression studies 6.4.1 Weight variation The average weight of core tablets and coated tablets were determined using a digital weighing balance. 20 tablets were selected randomly from each batch and weighed individually, calculating the average weight and comparing the individual tablet weight to the average. From this, percentage weight difference was calculated. Table 6.11 Limits of weight variation IP/BP Limit USP 80 mg or less 10% 130mg or less More than 80mg or Less than 250mg 7.5% 130mg to 324mg 250mg or more 5% More than 324mg Table no. : Data for weight variation test of all formulations Formulation Code Avg weight (meanÃ ±%deviation) Before Coating After Coating F1 178.42Ã ± 1.02 185.72Ã ±1.12 F2 181.31Ã ± 0.91 188.79Ã ±1.45 F3 179.21Ã ±1.34 187.89Ã ±1.09 F4 181.39Ã ±0.98 189.01Ã ±0.98 F5 179.76Ã ±1.32 186.96Ã ±1.42 F6 183.12Ã ±2.24 190.32Ã ±1.08 F7 180.09Ã ±1.08 187.34Ã ±1.12 F8 178.12Ã ±1.24 184.52Ã ±1.33 F9 179.35Ã ±1.02 187.01Ã ±1.14 F10 180.45Ã ±0.98 188.00Ã ±1.11 F11 181.32Ã ±1.23 188.67Ã ±1.28 F12 182.45Ã ±1.11 189.79Ã ±1.20 Hardness Hardness indicates the ability of a tablet to withstand mechanical shocks while handling. Hardness of both core and coated tablets were determined using a Monsanto hardness tester. It is expressed in kg/cm2. Three tablets were randomly picked from each batch and analyzed for hardness. The mean and standard deviation were also calculated. Table no. : Data for hardness of all formulations Formulation Code Hardness (kg/cm2)(n=3) (meanÃ ±SD) Before Coating After Coating F1 5.06Ã ±0.19 6.18Ã ±0.22 F2 5.21Ã ±0.26 6.29Ã ±0.42 F3 4.96Ã ±0.32 6.03Ã ±0.15 F4 5.02Ã ±0.22 6.41Ã ±0.32 F5 5.28Ã ±0.18 6.17Ã ±0.18 F6 5.11Ã ±0.33 6.25Ã ±0.28 F7 4.89Ã ±0.25 6.00Ã ±0.33 F8 4.99Ã ±0.14 6.32Ã ±0.36 F9 5.08Ã ±0.18 6.75Ã ±0.25 F10 4.99Ã ±0.25 5.98Ã ±0.12 F11 5.12Ã ±0.33 5.90Ã ±0.21 F12 4.97Ã ±0.10 5.96Ã ±0.19 Friability (F) It is the phenomenon whereby tablet surfaces are damaged and/or show evidence of lamination or breakage when subjected to mechanical shock or attrition. TheÃ friability of core tablets was determined using Roche Friabilator. It is expressed in percentage (%). Twenty core tablets were initially weighed (Winitial) and transferred into friabilator. The friabilator was operated at 25 rpm for 4 minutes or run up to 100 revolutions. The tablets were weighed again (Wfinal). The % friability was then calculated % Friability = ((A-B)/A) Ãâ" 100 Where, Formulation Code Friability (%) (n=10) F1 0.010 F2 0.015 F3 0.017 F4 0.012 F5 0.009 F6 0.016 F7 0.014 F8 0.013 F9 0.012 F10 0.015 F11 0.014 F12 0.012 A = Initial weight of tablets B = Final weight of tablets after 100 revolutions Friability of tablets less than 1% are considered acceptable. Drug content The famotidine core tablets were tested for their drug content. Five tablets were finely powdered; quantities of the powder equivalent to 100 mg of famotidine were accurately weighed and transferred to a 100 ml of volumetric flask. Made up to 100ml with 4.5 phosphate buffer. From the above solution 1ml was taken and made up to100 ml with phosphate buffer (pH 4.5) From the above solution 10 ml was taken and made up to100 ml with phosphate buffer (pH 4.5) i.e.,10Ã µg/ml solution and measure the absorbance of the resulting solution at 265 nm using a Shimadzu UV-visible spectrophotometer. The linearity equation obtained from calibration curve was used for estimation of famotidine in the tablet formulations. Formulation Code Assay (%) F1 99.25Ã ±0.042 F2 98.32Ã ±0.052 F3 99.15Ã ±0.016 F4 99.52Ã ±0.019 F5 101.95Ã ±0.021 F6 99.25Ã ±0.034 F7 99.98Ã ±0.028 F8 98.74Ã ±0.052 F9 98.23Ã ±0.061 F10 100.12Ã ±0.011 F11 99.52Ã ±0.021 F12 99.56Ã ±0.023 Table no. : Data for drug content of all formulations In-Vitro Dissolution Studies The developed formulations of were subjected in vitro dissolution studies using USP Type II dissolution apparatus (Electrolab, India) with a speed of 50 rpm. The dissolution study was carried out in 900 ml dissolution media maintained at 37Ã ±0.5 oC. At suitable time interval, 10 ml samples were withdrawn and replaced with equivalent amount of fresh medium to maintain sink conditions. Samples withdrawn were filtered and analyzed at 265 nm using a UV spectrophotometer. After analyzing the drug content in the dissolution samples, cumulative percentage of drug release versus time was plotted. The general conditions for in vitro dissolution studies are as summarized below. Dissolution conditions: Medium : 4.5 phosphate buffer Volume: 900 ml Temperature: 37 Ã °C Ã ± 0.5 Ã °C Apparatus: USP Type-II (paddle) Rpm: 50 Time intervals : 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 12 hr Samples were suitably diluted and absorbance was measured. Cumulative percentage drug released was calculated for each batch. The study was performed in triplicate and the average was reported. Table no. : In-Vitro data drug release data for formulation F-1 S.no Time Cumulative % drug release 1 0 0 2 1 2.81Ã ±2.75 3 2 4.00Ã ±1.64 4 3 6.67Ã ±2.56 5 4 10.61Ã ±1.98 6 5 13.07Ã ±2.84 7 6 16.31Ã ±1.27 8 7 18.56Ã ±1.32 9 8 21.86Ã ±0.99 10 10 27.07Ã ±1.46 11 12 32.76Ã ±1.21 Figure no. : In-Vitro drug release of formulation F-1 Table no. : In-Vitro data drug release data for formulation F-2 S.no Time Cumulative % drug release 1 0 0 2 1 2.10Ã ±2.84 3 2 4.21Ã ±1.95 4 3 7.52Ã ±2.95 5 4 10.61Ã ±2.09 6 5 13.07Ã ±1.95 7 6 16.31Ã ±2.75 8 7 18.56Ã ±2.94 9 8 21.86Ã ±1.24 10 10 32.16Ã ±1.89 11 12 40.79Ã ±1.11 Figure no. : In-Vitro drug release of formulation F-2 Table no. : In-Vitro data drug release data for formulation F-3 S.no Time Cumulative % drug release 1 0 0 2 1 4.02Ã ±3.72 3 2 8.04Ã ±1.34 4 3 13.34Ã ±2.83 5 4 18.63Ã ±1.52 6 5 22.90Ã ±1.32 7 6
Friday, January 17, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"CAN you still remember your Grade I teacher? Ã¢â¬ This was once the by-line of an advertisement of one financial institution. This is also the base concept of the play Ã¢â¬Å"Ang GuroÃ¢â¬ staged by Stairs Production and Imagination Beyond Events Philippines at West Negros University Gym last Saturday, January 21. The musical play was written by occupational therapist Paul Ballano. This is his form of loving tribute to his Grade I school teacher, Mrs. Cecilia Resontoc, who was instrumental in making him pursue, work and reach his goals, despite all odds. As Paul fondly recalled after the curtain call, Mrs. Resontoc made him believe in what he can do, what he can achieve, and what he can become. The softÃ¢â¬âspoken yet talented singer Karel Marquez performed the lead role perfectly. Comely, gentle yet versatile, Karel took in the part of Ms. Amelia Resontoc, a young high school teacher who has the knack of understanding and motivating her students. With her strong convictions, she encouraged her students to keep on going by singing Ã¢â¬Å"The ClimbÃ¢â¬ , as she accepted each of their individual differences in Ã¢â¬Å"True Colors. Ã¢â¬ Izzy Trazona, one of the Sex Bomb Dancers, showed off her acting and dancing prowess as one of the talented yet late bloomer students of Ms. Resontoc. Sheila Asuncion, who plays the mother of Karel, not only played her role well but also belted out one powerful, heartÃ¢â¬ârending rendition of Ã¢â¬Å"The PrayerÃ¢â¬ together with the lead singer. Together with Charina Ramirez, Kath Jarabelo, Zac Celadania, Yab Aragones, Jake Duquiatan, Vida Masakayan, Jess Ibasco, Juddie Fe Suarez, Ahmee Galguerra, Owen Siy, Sweet Reyes, Jen Galope, Kiana Rodriguez, Armand Go, and playwright Paul, they composed the powerhouse of a cast which made the play a natural success. Moreover, the playÃ¢â¬â¢s universal theme on the crucial role that teachers play in the molding of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s young minds and the nobility of the teaching profession are great ideas which need to be brought to light. No wonder why the Department of Education and the West Negros University supported the staging of the musicale. The stage set and backdrop were to the minimum. Same with the costumes. But the plot thickens with almost real-life dialogues and scenes which every teacher and student or school administrator in the audience could easily identify with. The different personalities of teacher and students, and the varied circumstances which caught each web of each other lives provided the audience with hearty laughs, and flowing tears. The end of the play may have been tragic, but all good works do not go in vain. Especially that of the noble teacher Ms. Amelia Resontoc. Directed by Sweet Grace Ballano, Ã¢â¬Å"Ang GuroÃ¢â¬ may still have to undergo some minor refinements in stage blocking, but it has carved a better niche for itself in the world of stage plays. The cameo roles which some WNU dancers and students did in the play are also worth mentioning. But because the play is conceptualized and brought to different schools all over the country with no thought of a bigger profit, except to fulfill the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s dream and to bring forth the messages of acceptance, honor, love and understanding. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s just quite sad to note that not everybody in the teaching profession or those who are enrolled in education courses have watched the play. But still, like a good book, or a worthy movie, the musicale Ã¢â¬Å"Ang GuroÃ¢â¬ has touched hearts and minds. And if all the student-members in the audience took leave of their seats to go thank their teachers in the audience and give each a warm hug, such is indicative that the musicale has brought its message across its audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s hearts. Thus, warm kudos to the members of production and the cast of Ã¢â¬Å"Ang GuroÃ¢â¬ and to the wonderful people and sponsors in Bacolod who brought the musicale here. Well, what or who then is the Ã¢â¬Å"guroÃ¢â¬ ? Probably they could be as specific as Socrates, Anne Sullivan, Marva Collins, Mary McCloud Bethune, Bel Kaufman or, from the namesake of the lead player in the musicale, Mrs. Cecilia Resontoc Ã¢â¬â all of them having one thing in common: they were all teachers in their own time. Or in generics, a Ã¢â¬Å"guroÃ¢â¬ can just be a Ã¢â¬Å"heÃ¢â¬ or a Ã¢â¬Å"sheÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â nameless or faceless yet gentle and wonderful beings who have long been forgotten but whose valuable lessons and strength in character will always be remembered by their students. So, at this point, can you now recall your Grade 1 teacher? Or even your other teachers? I hope you can. I would like to end with a part of a speech of John Schlatter of Cypress, California which I adapted. Ã¢â¬Å"Throughout the course of the day I have been called upon to be an actor, friend, nurse and doctor, coach, finder of the lost article, money lender, psychologist, substitute parent, and a keeper of faithÃ¢â¬ ¦ I am allowed to see that life is reborn each day with new questions, burst of ideas and young friendshipsÃ¢â¬ ¦ I know that if I build with love and trust, what I build will last foreverÃ¢â¬ ¦ I am a warrior, daily doing battle against peer pressure, negativity, fear, conformity, prejudice, ignorance, and apathy. But I have great allies: curiosity, intelligence, creativity, faith, love and laughter which all rush to my banner with indomitable supportÃ¢â¬ ¦ I AM A TEACHER. Ã¢â¬ Dear teachers, our hats off you. GOD BLESS.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Sample details Pages: 22 Words: 6680 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Background of the topic: The purpose of this dissertation is to analyze and investigate the effect of the loyalty cards on customer loyalty and how does it helps large organizations to achieve its goals. When shopping in supermarkets there is one experience that everyone has, when customers finish with their shopping and get to a checkout, the assistant will ask the customers, whether they have a clubcard. This will continue every time whenever those customers without a clubcard shops in the future, the assistant will keep on asking them for a clubcard unless they get one for themselves. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Effect of the loyalty cards on customer loyalty" essay for you Create order Now there is a question that will come across every customers mind, what is a clubcard and why does every company insist them and every customer to be a part of the clubcard family? Now people become curious and they want to get a clubcard too. The assistant says to fill up a form with the customers general details like name, address and contact details and the day customer fills the form, next day they will receive a clubcard. Impressive, now why companies offer clubcards to their customers, how do companies benefit from these schemes they provide for their customers? Background of this research title is concerned with the highly competitive market where retail giants have to survive and maintain their competitive edge to always stay ahead in the race or even to survive the downfall whenever necessary. Unlimited majors are taken and a huge amount of time and money is spent to attract customers who bring revenue to the company. Having a large number of competitors around, it is very difficult to have a competitive advantage. Basic mean for this subject matter is to identify the purpose and importance of relationship marketing, and its benefits to make strategic decisions. Loyalty cards can significantly boost business profits whilst simultaneously building customer loyalty. Studies show that loyalty cards are one of the most cost effective ways to build brand loyalty and improve customer retention. Loyalty cards are used by all the major retail and supermarket chains as a vital tool to improve profitability, but one does not need to be a national high street store in order to run a profitable reward card scheme. One of the reasons the supermarkets are taking business away from independent retailers are the incentives offered in their loyalty card schemes. The loyalty cards market in the UK is one of the most significant in the world and forms the backbone of marketing and customer retention planning. With over 85% of UK Households possessing loyalty cards it is really a case where companies can afford not to offer a loyalty card service to their customers. There are different companies who offer loyalty schemes for their customer and give customers shopping vouchers after they spend certain amount of money through those loyalty cards. Main objective behind loyalty cards is to keep customer loyal with the company by offering them discounts and gifts on their shopping so they spend more money in their shops and markets. Most common example of loyalty card is Tesco club card, Sainsbury nectar card and other such cards offered by different companies in the country. But most of the people wont understand the idea behind those loyalty cards that how they work. The success of the Tesco Clubcard has been well documented, in 2002 a Market and Opinion Research Poll found that Tescos Clubcard had been more successful than the programmers offered by rival supermarkets (Smith, 2004). Rationale: Why is this study being done Tesco got a huge amount of success with its loyalty schemes unlike its competitors. The reason behind this study is to find out why Tesco was so successful with their Loyalty cards, Tesco Club cards, as they are named, and how it played a very important role in maintaining their customers loyalty, which is very important for any business today. The theory behind this concept is Relationship Marketing, and how it was used by Tesco to grow its business. Background of this research title is concerned with the highly competitive market where retail giants have to survive and maintain their competitive edge to always stay ahead in the race or even to survive the downfall whenever necessary. Unlimited majors are taken and a huge amount of time and money is spent to attract customers who bring revenue to the company. Having a large number of competitors around, it is very difficult to have a competitive advantage. Basic mean for this subject matter is to identify the purpose and importance of relationship marketing, and its benefits to make strategic decisions. Companies offer such countless schemes for their customers to retain and maintain customer loyalty for their store. There are many other factors behind these loyalty schemes where companies benefit. Loyalty card schemes are not only beneficial for the customers, but are equally beneficial for the companies as well. Significance: How does the study contribute The aim of the research is to identify the impact of the Tesco Clubcard on customer loyalty. This will contribute to contrast customer perceptions of the Clubcard, staff and feeling valued to identify which factor has the greater impact on customer loyalty to store. The paper is useful to both practitioners and academics in the fields of relationship marketing and loyalty. The research provides some initial insight into consumer perspectives in the value of loyalty cards. Tesco has succeeded with the strategy of loyalty cards, but its competitors did not. Retailers like Sainsburys and ASDAs who are the competitors of Tesco, did not manage to promote their business using their loyalty cards as Tesco did. Tesco got a huge amount of success with its loyalty schemes unlike its competitors. Tesco has been known for their best customer service where as its competitor, Asda have been known for their best value and low competitive prices. Now why has Tesco chosen such a marketing strategy t o attract customers and increase revenue? The reason behind this study is to find out why Tesco was so successful with their Loyalty cards, Tesco Club cards, as they are named, and how it played a very important role in maintaining their customers loyalty, which is very important for any business today. The theory behind this concept is Relationship Marketing, and how it was used by Tesco to grow its business. Tesco has chosen a marketing strategy where they need to gain customers faith and trust to maintain a good relationship with them. Hence they need to know everything about their customers individually. How will they keep a track of each and every customer they have? There are many strategies to know your customers and Tesco uses such strategies to have a good track of their customers. The best way to do this is by the method of loyalty cards. Companies can know much more about their customers through loyalty cards. This study will show how Tesco collects data of their customer s and use that data to improve their customer service in order to gain customer satisfaction. Aims Objectives: The aim of the research is to investigate the influence of the Tesco Clubcard on customer store loyalty. In 1995, Tesco introduced the loyalty Clubcard that was to offer, Benefits to regular shoppers whilst helping the company discover more about its Customer needs. The main aim of this research will be to compare the Loyalty schemes of Tesco Clubcards with its competitors like Sainsburys and ASDA, and find out why Tescos Clubcards were a huge success unlike Sainsburys Nectar and Asda loyalty cards did not succeed in promoting their business. The study also focuses on the need of customer loyalty and what steps were taken by Tesco to retain and maintain its customer loyalty. (www.tescocorporate.com) Sign Posting: A glance at the major and successful organizations around the globe shows that their success is partly due to their ability to apply the theory of relationship marketing. In the contemporary business arena, all organizations, large or small improve their effectiveness and efficiency by applying this theory, thus improving their customer service and customer relations which play a very important role for any business organization. This study shows the brief idea of the Relationship Marketing and how it has been used by the retail giant, Tesco to gain their customers loyalty and retain it for a long time. Tesco is the company on which this whole study has been based on. At the first there is some information and idea has been explained about Relationship Marketing and how is plays a vital role in companys marketing strategies. It also discusses about the benefits of the relationship marketing and how it is used by the company to achieve its aims and objectives. This will later on cont inue with the main topic, that is, the success of Tescos loyalty cards other than its competitors. It will discuss the concept of the loyalty cards and the different strategies used by Tesco and even its competitors to get a competitive edge in the surviving market. The later part of the study also shows how Clubcards are beneficial for the customers as well as the company. Then research methodology is identified that how the research will be conducted, it includes that how the research will designed means the ways through effective data can be find out. Literature Review In this discussion outcomes from the previous research will be demonstrate to provide the clear understanding to the topic. In this chapter views of different authors and researches will be quoted to support the research. It will include the work of researchers who have worked on this matter and have reached to some conclusion. As a literature review chapter it will consist of basic definitions of customer loyalty, customer relationship, loyalty cards and the most important one relationship marketing. This chapter will also explain these theories and how are they applicable for the strategies used by the companies to achieve their goals and success. Customer Relationship: What does it mean for an organisation and its customer to have a relationship with each other? What kind of a relationship would they have with each other? Do customers have relationships with enterprises that do not know them? Is it necessary that the companies know their customers or the other way around? What kind of a relationship would that be if both the parties are unaware of the relationship they have? Can the enterprise be said to have a relationship with a customer it does not know? Is it possible for a customer to have a relationship with a brand? It can be said that customers would know the products but not the company. Experts have studied the nature of relationships in business for many years, and there are many different perspectives on the fundamental purpose of relationships in business strategies. It can be said that the only aim of the company is not only to gain maximum profits out of their customers or having the greatest market share or the rank the company is. Instead, to be successful in the era of interactivity, when it is possible to deal individually with separate customers, the business objective must include establishing meaningful and profitable relationships at least with the most valuable customers, and making the overall customer base more valuable. Technology plays a very crucial role in maintaining this relationship between companies and customers. In short, the company strives to get a customer, keep that customer for a lifetime, and grow the value of the customer to the organisation. Relationships are the crux of the customer-strategy enterprise. Relationships between customers and enterprises provide the framework for everything else connected to the customer-value business model. This is the same model used by Tesco in order to gain a competitive advantage in the most competitive markets in the world. The exchange between a customer and the enterprise becomes mutually beneficial, as customers give information in return fo r personalized service that meets their individual needs. Because we are talking about relationships between businesses and their customers, it is important that we agree on a few of the elements that make up a genuine relationship. And while dictionary definitions are not bad as starting points, the most important issue for us to consider is how well our own definition of relationship helps companies succeed in the customer dimension of competition. Lets list some of the distinct qualities that should characterize a relationship between an enterprise and a customer. First, a relationship implies mutuality. In order for anyone to consider a relationship, both the company and its customer have to participate in and be aware of the existence of the relationship. This is the most common factor which is needed to be realized by both the parties. This means that relationships must inherently be two-way in nature. Second, relationships are driven by interaction. When the company and the customer interact, they exchange information, and this info rmation exchange is a best tool for building the relationship. This, of course, also implies mutuality. But interactions dont have to take place by phone or in person or on the Web. An interaction takes place when a customer buys a product from the company that sells it. This is where the customer and the company are in face to face for a reason which builds up this relationship. Every interaction adds to the total information content possible in the relationship. This leads to the third characteristic of a relationship: It is iterative in nature. That is, since both the customer and the company are interacting mutually, the interactions themselves build up a history, over timea context. This context gives a relationships future interactions greater and greater efficiency, because every successive interaction represents that the company and the customer is growing into a healthy relationship than before by communication and a benefit for both the parties. The more that company commu nicates with its customer, the less they need to say the next time around to get their point across. Another characteristic of a customer relationship is that it will be driven by an ongoing benefit to the customer and the company. The customers convenience is one type of benefit, for the customer, but not the only one. Participating in a relationship will involve a cost in money, time, or effort, and no customer will engage for long in any relationship the company wont be more beneficial for that customer, of it that customer is not getting more benefits that before. However, precisely because of the context of the relationship and its continuing benefit for the customer and the company, each party in a relationship has an incentive to recover from mistakes. Relationships also require a change in behavior on the part of both, the customer as well as the company, in order to continue. After all, what drives the ongoing benefit of a relationship is not only its context, its history o f interactions, developed over time, but also the fact that the customers and the companys current and future actions reflect that previous context. This is an important characteristic, because companies sometimes mistakenly believe that interactions with a customer need is always the same, the communication from the companys side, cannot deliver same behavior pattern to every customer. In other words companies need to have relationships with their customer individually because the behavior of every customer is not always the same, which can result in different kind of relationship pattern with the company. But unless the companys actions toward a particular customer are somehow different, there is a possibility of miscommunication and can ruin the relation between that customer and the company, which will be no ongoing benefit for the customer, and as a result the customer might not continue the relationship. Every relationship is different. Relationships are constituted with indiv iduals, not with populations. This means relationships are with the individual customer and not the whole segment of the customer population of the company. As a result, a company who wants to engage its customers in relationships must be prepared to participate in different interactions, remember different customers and their behavior or spending habits, and engage in different behaviors toward different customers.(Peppers .D, Rogers. M 2004) During the last few years there has been a growing interest in studying the economics and markets of long-lasting customer relationships where customer relationships play a vital role for every company. This kind of relationship can help to increase revenue for the company which can be a long term process and a continuous growth of the relationship between the organization and the customer. Heskett introduced the concept of market economies, which means achieving results by understanding the customers behavior instead of by concentrating on developing scale economies. (Heskett, J.L., 1987) A mutually satisfactory relationship between the company and its customers makes it possible for customers to avoid significant transaction costs involved in shifting from one company or a service provider which can be beneficial for both, the customer and the company. However, customer retention is not enough. Some long-lasting customer relationships, where the customers are obviously satisfied with what they get, are not profitable even in the long run, as Storbacka says. There is clear evidence that from a profitability point of view intelligent relationship building where company can be beneficial to the customer as well as themselves in the long run, then only such a management make sense. (Storbacka, K., 1993) Customer Loyalty: The whole point of a relationship is to keep your customers, and simultaneously grow new customers. So what is customer loyalty? Those whove tried to answer that question have approached it from two different directions: attitudinal (what Barnes calls emotional) and behavioral (what Barnes calls functional). Although each of these two definitions of loyalty is valid, they have different implications and lead to very different prescriptions for businesses. The attitudinal definition of loyalty implies that loyalty is a state of mind. Customers are loyal to a brand or a company if they have a positive, preferential attitude toward it. They like the company, its products, or its brands, and they therefore prefer to buy from it, rather than from the companys competitors. In purely commercial terms, the attitudinal definition of customer loyalty would mean that someone who is willing to pay a premium for Brand A over Brand B, even when the products they represent are virtually equivalent , is loyal to Brand A. But the emphasis is on willingness, rather than on actual behavior, per se. In terms of attitudes, then, increasing a customers loyalty is virtually equivalent to increasing the customers preference for the brand. It is closely tied to product quality and customer satisfaction. Any company wanting to increase loyalty, in attitudinal terms, will concentrate on improving its product, its image, or other elements of the customer experience, relative to its competitors. The behavioral definition of loyalty would mean that someone is willing to pay a premium for Brand A over Brand B, even without respect to the attitudes or preferences that underlie that conduct. By this definition, customers are loyal to a company if they buy from it and then continue to buy from it. Loyalty is concerned with repurchase activity, regardless of any internally held attitudes or preferences. In the behavioral definition, loyalty is not the cause, but the result of brand preference. A company wanting to increase customer loyalty will focus on whatever tactics will in fact increase the amount of repurchase behavior tactics that can easily include, without being limited to, raising consumers general preference for the brand or their level of satisfaction with it. (Peppers .D, Rogers. M 2004) Customer loyalty could be termed a customers commitment to do business with a particular organization, purchasing their goods and services repeatedly, and recommending the services and products to friends and associates. It is a term which is neither easy to gain nor maintain, rather it is vulnerable, where even if its customers are satisfied with the service they will continue to defect if they believe they can get better value, convenience or quality elsewhere. (McIlroy, A. and Barnett, S. (2000) In order to investigate the concept of loyalty, we see the framework of Sopanen (1996) to reveal six different types of loyalty: (1) Monopoly loyalty, where there are no available choices. (2) Inertia loyalty, where customers do not actively seek substitutes. (3) Convenience loyalty, where loyalty is solely defined by location. (4) Price loyalty: where customers are influenced by the lowest price. (5) Incentivized loyalty, where loyalty relates to the benefits gained from reward cards and programmers. (6) Emotional loyalty, where customers are influenced by factors such as brand. From this we can observe that loyalty programs such as Tesco Clubcard can be considered an incentivized type of loyalty, which can be exhibited by customers, but the strength of this loyalty is often questioned. As organizations become increasingly customer focused and driven by customer demands, the need to meet the customers expectations and retain their loyalty becomes more critical (Disney, 1999, p. 491). Customer loyalty is one of the fundamental goals of marketing (Selnes, 1993). Not only does it guarantee repeat customers, but it also decreases the need for companies to spend large portions of their budgets on advertising and promotion in order to attract new customers. Mittal and Lassar (1998) identified that customer loyalty is very often thought of as an outcome of customer satisfaction. This explains why customer satisfaction has become an essential concept in marketing and its quest is one of the most important goals for businesses (Webster, 1994) Relationship Marketing: Relationship marketing is very much interlinked with the notion and practice of customer care. There is no doubt that the development of relationship marketing has had and will continue to have major implications for the marketing managers. Comprehensive accounts of the development, meaning and implications of relationship marketing for the contemporary marketer are given by Lancaster and Massingham. As so often, there are many different views as to the precise nature and hence definition of relationship marketing. So, for example, Groonroos stressed the element of mutual exchange ad trust in relationship marketing as follows. Relationship marketing is a process including several parties or actors, the objective of which has to be met. This is done by mutual exchange and fulfillment of promises, a fact that makes trust an important aspect of marketing. Stone and Woodcock on the other hand put more emphasis on the traditional tool of sales, communication and customer care techniques. Again we see overlap between these two areas. Relationship marketing involves the use of a wide range of marketing, sales, communications and customer care techniques and processes to: identify named individual customers, create a relationship between the company and these customers, and manage that relationship to the benefit of both the customer and the company. Perhaps one of the simplest and yet the most powerful summaries of what relationship marketing is however, is that provided by Buttle. At its best, RM (relationship management) is characterized by a genuine concern to meet or exceed the expectations of the customers and to provide excellent service in an environment of trust and commitment to the relationship. Buttle goes on to indicate what is involved in successful relationship marketing and the commitment of the company required to generate this success. To be successful relationship marketers, companies must develop a supportive organizational culture, market the RM idea internally, intimately understand customers expectations, create and maintain a detailed customer database, and organize and reward employees in such a way that the objective of RM, customer retention, is achieved. This illustrates that relationship marketing has major implications for both how we think about marketing and our approach to the practice of marketi ng. It affects and includes the provision of marketing information, organizational systems and procedures, and the elements of marketing strategy. Relationship Marketing refers to Promotional and needs and maintain the relationship. This proposal is concerned with Relationship management and marketing at how it is been used by companies to maintain existing customers, retain lost customers and attract new customers. (https://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/relationship-marketing.html) Relationship marketing is systems-oriented, yet it includes managerial aspects. A systems approach is well suited as a basis for a general theory of marketing, because it makes it possible to include all relevant actors, environmental influence, and even the process nature of marketing. (Kuhn, T.S. (1957) The concept of relationship marketing has emerged within the fields of service marketing and industrial marketing. The phenomenon described by this concept is strongly supported by ongoing trends in modern business. Grnroos defines relationship marketing in the following way: Marketing is to establish, maintain, and enhance relationships with customers and other partners, at a profit, so that the objectives of the parties involved are met. This is achieved by a mutual exchange and fulfillment of promises. Such relationships are usually but not necessarily always long-term. Establishing a relationship, for example with a customer, can be divided into two parts: to attract the customer and to build the relationship with that customer so that the economic goals of that relationship are achieved. (Grnroos, C. (1990) More businesses are moving toward relationship marketing in dealing with their customers as more customers expect a personalized experience. Considering relationship marketing vs. transactional marketing for https://searchcrm.techtarget.com/generic/0,295582,sid11_gci1253633_mem1,00.html) Relationship marketing is a marketing strategy that emphasizes customer loyalty, customer retention and long-term customer engagement. Using the relationship marketing approach, an organization aims to develop strong, long-term connections with customers by providing them with information directly suited to their needs and interests. This approach often results in increased word-of-mouth activity, long-term purchasing behavior and a willingness to provide information. The goal of every enterprise, once you strip away all the activities that keep everybody busy every day, is simply to get, keep, and grow customers. Whether a business focuses its efforts on product innovation, operational efficiency and low price, or customer intimacy, for that firm must have customers or the enterprise isnt a businessits a hobby. This is true for nonprofits (where the customers may be donors or volunteers) as well as for-profits, for firms large and small, for public as well as private enterprise. What does it mean for an enterprise to focus on its customers as the key to competitive advantage? Obviously, it does not mean giving up the product edge, or the operational efficiencies, that have been successful in the past. It does mean using new strategies, nearly always requiring new technologies, to focus on growing the value of the company by deliberately and strategically growing the value of the customer base. Companies needed to build comprehensive customer dat abases. Companies had been maintaining product databases, sales force databases, and dealer databases. Now they needed to build, maintain, mine, and manage a customer database that could be used by company personnel in sales, marketing, credit, accounting, and other company functions. As customer database marketing grew, several different names came to describe it, including individualized marketing, customer intimacy, technology enabled marketing, dialogue marketing, interactive marketing, permission marketing, and one-to-one marketing. Modern technology makes it possible for enterprises to learn more about individual customers, remember those needs, and shape the companys offerings, services, messages and interactions to each valued customer. The new technologies make mass-customization (otherwise an oxymoron) possible. At the same time, technology is only a partial factor in helping companies do genuine one-to-one marketing. The following quotes about customer relationship manage ment (CRM) make this point vividly: CRM is not a software package. Its not a database. Its not a call center or a Web site. Its not a loyalty program, a customer service program, a customer acquisition program or a win-back program. CRM is an entire philosophy. (Steve Silver) A CRM program is typically 45 percent dependent on the right executive leadership, 40 percent on project management implementation and 15 percent on technology. (Edmund Thompson, Gartner Group) (Peppers .D, Rogers. M 2004) Loyalty Card: Any retailer running a loyalty card scheme could call up customer details and purchase history from incoming phone numbers. In many firms, loyalty cards are used for direct marketing and not much else. Using them to dramatically improve customer service seems a fitting reward for loyalty. Marketing program designed to enhance brand loyalty by cultivating an ongoing relationship between a marketer and his customer. Successful loyalty programs encourage the consumer to buy frequently, to increase the amount spent each time, and to concentrate all or most of their related purchases on that brand. Most loyalty programs offer perks for membership in a club or program and reward purchases. Rewards may be based on the dollar value of purchases made or on the frequency of purchases. The most well-known loyalty programs are airline frequent-flyer programs that offer discounts against future travel called award miles. Most large supermarket chains now have frequent-buyer clubs that offer no-coupon discounts as well as newsletters and https://www.answers.com/topic/loyalty-program) A loyalty card program is an incentive plan that allows a retail business to gather data about its customers. Customers are offered product discounts, coupons, points toward merchandise or some other reward in exchange for their voluntary participation in the program. A secondary goal of a loyalty card program is to build repeat business by offering participating customers something that isnt available to non-participating customers. Loyalty cards often resemble plastic credit cards but they can also be keychain fobs or stickers. Typically a loyalty card has a barcode or magnetic stripe thats scanned at the point of sale (POS). The card identifies the customer and sends information about what the customer bought to a database. The information in the database is used to help the retailer understand and influence his customers buying habits. According to research carried out by Boston Universitys College of Communication, eighty-six percent of American shoppers are listed in a loyalty database; a majority of survey respondents said receiving the card was worth giving up some measure of privacy. Loyalty schemes are necessary for the retailers because it helps them in attracting the customers and when they came to them they try to retain them by offering their services on discounted rates and by offering them further discounts and services. Smith states the importance of loyalty cards and schemes in the following st atement if you dont use database marketing, youre going to find yourself in the dinosaur room at the retail museum of history (Smith, 1992). Loyalty cards are offered and given to make customers loyal to one brand or retail group to increase consumer market and revenues. Almost all big retail groups and supermarkets have their loyalty cards for their customers to give those discounts and rewards on different products. They also use it for direct marketing and promotion of their new products for the customers. Dick and Basu say that loyalty, however, should go beyond regular purchasing but the loyalty phenomena argue that relative attitudes are also important. That is loyalty depends not only on positive attitudes towards the store or brands, but also on differential attitudes towards the alternatives (Dick and Basu, 1994) Attaining customer loyalty is a puzzle that involves lots of pieces fitting together. A companys marketing strategy, employee retention, customer service consistency, adequate analytics and CRM systems all play a role in retaining satisfied customers and creating a superior reputation. Customers have so many choices these days, and its the company with a careful mix of loyalty programs, dynamic employees and a sense of service that will succeed in creating rich, personalized customer experiences and luring customers away from competitors and keeping them year after year. According to market analysts and consultants Don Peppers and Martha Rogers, business success is harder now than ever before because of oversupply in all markets. In their book Return on Customer, they point out that customers have become the scarcest resource of all. So its crucial that businesses continually find and keep new customers and understand the ways customers interact with organizations. Each customer interaction within your organization is equally important, and each can bring you more sales or leave you without. This diagram from Peppers Rogers consultancy shows the pillars of an effective customer satisfaction strategy. Peppers Rogers Group, 2005 Research Methodology: 3.1 Introduction This Chapter will set out the conceptual framework of the study, which will be based on the Survey Questioner. It will introduce the basic research methods; there pros and cons and how they work. This Chapter will also cover the method in which the study has been conducted and what tools/methods will be employed whilst conducting the study. Research design was based on the different parts. A total of 30 customers were surveyed by questionnaire for this research. The aim was to explore the impact of the Tesco Clubcard on store loyalty using a sample, large enough to demonstrate meaningful results. The questionnaire used was a mixture of open and closed questions. A benefit of using open questions is in the variety of replies, which could be supplied, where each respondent can give a personal response or opinion in his or her own words. The closed questions were nothing but the multi choice answers form where it was easy for the customer to give their feedback easily without losing much time. Further research was conducted by personal interviews with the managers in the store and their views and experiences were noted down in order to investigate customers reactions and their problems regarding the Tesco Clubcards. Even the staff from the checkouts and customer service desk were interviewed to note the number of applicat ions they got for a new Clubcard and also to discover the different types of problems faced by both, the customer as well as the employees regarding the Clubcards. Now, some major concepts and definitions of Research will be discussed as we go ahead following with different methods which can be used while conducting a research. The pros and cons of the research methods will also be discussed and how they have helped me in my research. In the broadest sense of the word, the observational science do not always comply with this norm. (https://www.experiment-resources.com/definition-of-research.html) Research is an organized and systematic way of finding answers to the questions. Systematic because there is a definite set of procedures and steps which you will follow. There are certain things in the research process which are always done in order to get the most accurate results. Organized in that there is a structure or method in going about doing research. It is a planned procedure, not a spontaneous one. It is focused and limited to a specific scope. Finding answers is the end of all research. Whether it is the answer to a hypothesis or even a simple question, research is successful when we find answers. Sometimes the answer is no, but it is still an answer. Questions are central to research. If there is no question, then the answer is of no use. Research is focused on relevant, useful, and important questions. Without a question, research has no focus, drive, or purpose. Research methods: Research methods are rules and procedures, and can be seen as tools or ways of proceedings to solve problems. Research methods play several roles such as: logic or ways of reasoning to arrive at solutions; Rules for communication, i.e. to explain how the findings have been achieved; Rules of intersubjectivity, i.e. outsiders should be able toexamine and evaluate research findings. Problem/ Task Solution/ Answer Method The above figure illustrates the role of methods for arriving at solutions. An important aspect is that there must be a valid reason (or theory) underlying the actual method so that it will result in the correct solution. Moreover choice of methods requires understanding of the actual research problem. In addition, command over the methods and the ability to adequately choose among (and combine) methods are needed. Research is often associated with constructing and designing questionnaires, measurements, statistical procedures and so on, which can be subsumed under the umbrella concept research methodology. Research methodology can be conceived as a system of rules and procedures. Such rules and procedures are important in research for several purposes: Research methodology can be conceived as rules for reasoning, i.e. a specific logic to acquire insights. Research methodology is important for intersubjectivity, i.e. by reporting (in detail) how the researcher has obtained his or her findings, the researcher enables others to evaluate it. Research methodology can also be considered as rules for communication. By reporting on the rules and procedures used, others may try to replicate, or they can criticize the approach chosen and the reported findings. Qualifying research requires competence in logical reasoning and analysis. The researcher thus needs to have command over the research methodology to be used. Research methodology is thus an important tool in the researchers toolbox. Research, however is also closely related to finding, selecting, structuring and solving problems. In order to grasp, represent and understand problems, concepts, theories and models are crucial. Theoretical knowledge, and the ability to think conceptually are important and a prerequisite for doin qualified research. Problems represent the point of departure in research. Perception and the structuring of problems influence subsequent research activities. Qualifying empirical research requires both conceptual and methodological insights. (Ghauri. P. Gornhaug. K. 2005) Now a days research is a very reliable and authentic way of data collection and getting new data or information in order to develop an understanding of the issue. There are a lot of researchers and companies involved in different types of research, who conduct research on behalf of different companies and authorities to collect the data and form a base for different theories. There are different types of research used for different purposes and to collect different types of data. But there are two most commonly and popularly used methods called qualitative and quantitative research methods. Both methods have their own importance and credibility in the market. Both were used to collect data but methods to collect the data are different but were reliable and being used frequently by most of the researchers and companies collecting data and surveys on behalf of different clients. Now I would like to describe both kinds of research methods and their benefits like advantages and disadvan tages of using them for different researches and studies. 3.2 Types of Research There are two types of research. Quantitative Research Qualitative Research 3.2.1 Quantitative Research Quantitative research is research involving the use of structured questions where the response options have been predetermined and a large number of respondents is involved. By definition, measurement must be objective, quantitative and statistically valid. Simply put, its about numbers, objective hard data. The sample size for a survey is calculated by statisticians using formulas to determine how large a sample size will be needed from a given population in order to achieve findings with an acceptable degree of accuracy. Generally, researchers seek sample sizes which yield findings with at least 95% confidence interval (which means that if you repeat the survey 100 times, 95 times out of a hundred, you would get the same response) and plus/minus 5 percentage points margin error. Many surveys are designed to produce smaller margin of error. Quantitative research refers to counts and measures of things, qualitative research refers to the meanings, concepts, definitions, characterist ics, metaphors, symbols, and descriptions of things. (https://uk.geocities.com/balihar_sanghera/ipsrmehrigiulqualitativequantitativeresearch.html) Quantitative research is structured and is structured and is characterized by surveys, pie charts, and statistical reliability. When you need to know hard facts or take reliable measurements, you will need to turn to quantitative research. Quantitative research can provide a representative picture of the population being studied. (Grossnickle J Raskin O, 2001) Quantitative research is a formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are utilised to obtain information about the world. (Burns and Grove cited by Cormack 1991 p 140)
Wednesday, January 1, 2020
Different Types of Attacks on Computer Systems What is attack on a Computer Systems? Attack on a systems or network is defined on your network infrastructure. Attacker will first analyse network environment and collect information in order to take advantage of the existing open ports or vulnerabilities. It may include unauthorized access to companyÃ¢â¬â¢s resources. Passive attack - In some cases, the purpose of attack is only to learn and get some information from your computer system and your computer system resources are not manipulated or disabled in any way, then it is called Passive attack. And it is hard to detect that someone is monitoring you because you will not see any changes in your system. Active attack - Active attack occurs where the attacker accesses and either alters, disables or destroys your information or data. Attack can be happened either from outside of the organization means Outside Attack or someone from within the company who is an insider that already has access to the network which is called Inside Attack. Some of the attacks will be attacks targeting the end-users like Phishing or Social Engineering, those are usually not directly called as network attacks. Methods of attacks These are the methods that can be used to make an attack on a computer system. Distributed attack - A distributed attack are very strategic attacks. It requires particular code such as a Trojan horse or back-door program, to a trusted software that so, with thatShow MoreRelatedTypes Of Attacks On Computer System3184 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesDifferent Types of Attacks on Computer System Introduction A PC attack may be characterized as activities coordinated against PC frameworks to disturb gear operations, change transforming control, or degenerate put away information. 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Monday, December 23, 2019
Data Communication Concepts I Instructions: Insert your answer after each question in a bold red typeface. When complete, attach the document as your submission for this assignment. You may name your answers document any name you choose. Once I score your document it will be named [Last Name][First Name], and returned to you as an attachment to my feedback. When your answer consists of a list of items, please enter only one list-item per line. This helps speed the scoring process. Name: ________Hugo Tinoco sanchez ___________ Assignment Questions: Describe the responsibilities and scope of authority for each of the following government organizations. You may need to review the discussion on the ITU from chapter one:Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Describe the three dedicated-circuit network architectures discussed in the textbook. Explain the strengths and weaknesses of each. Ring Architecture. Has a closed loop with all PCÃ¢â¬â¢s linked to the next one. Circuits are full duplex or half duplex, which allows messaging in both directions around the ring. The fall back is the time in which message can take to travel around the ring from the sender to a receiver, since the messages have to pass through several different computers and circuits, concluding in traffic delays which can pile up quickly. Star Architecture connects all the PCs to a central PC which acts as the message router to an appropriate PC. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s easier to manage because of the central PC receiving and routing all the messages in the desired network. This allows the communication to be faster than ring architecture since it only travels through two circuits to reach the receiver. However, having only one central pc can create more problems since its in change of all the messages on the network. This creates room for overload in traffic and could potentially decrease performance overall. Mesh Architecture has every PC connected to very other PC. This is a Full-mesh network, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest downfall is the high price. However, partial-mesh most PC, but not all are connected to each other. Although it combines star and ring, ifShow MoreRelatedLogical vs. Physical Network Design1134 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescase, the design might require multiple communication paths to resources or the implementation of clustered servers with replicated data for load balancing. Also, the job functions of the clients must be studied. What are their jobs and work patterns and how does this affect the placement of servers, high-bandwidth links, and other physical components? Furthermore, a network engineer must determine the scope of the applications requiring network communication. For example, most networks consistRead MoreLogical Vs. Physical Network Design Essay1125 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescase, the design might require multiple communication paths to resources or the implementa tion of clustered servers with replicated data for load balancing. 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